Background of the Teatro Colon in Buenos Aires musical activity
The theater in Buenos Aires began in the late eighteenth century. At the time of Viceroy Vertiz, was built Rancheria Theatre at the corner of Peru and Alsina. They debuted in 1789, the first version of Siripo Manuel José de Labardén. Complementing the dramas and comedies are offered tunes, as they did in Spain, singing actresses and actors to the accompaniment of guitar and ended with the bowling ball and seguidillas. El Teatro de la Rancheria, or House of Comedy, was destroyed by fire in August 1792. Until the construction of the Coliseum Theater in 1804, Buenos Aires remained theater, but the activity took place in any suitable and accessible to the audience.
The first manifestations of opera began in the early nineteenth century. After the May Revolution, began an intense musical activity. Antonio Picassarri-pianist, singer and conductor, introduced operatic singing and the 20s came the first European artists.
Only in 1825, formed the first opera company and could be offered in Buenos Aires an entire opera, Il barbiere di Siviglia.
The political problems of the Rosas alienated artists, but from 1848, the activity gained new momentum. The performances were held in the Teatro de la Victoria, at the Teatro Argentino and the modest Teatro Coliseo. The season included titles by Verdi, Bellini, Donizetti, according to the prevailing fashion in Europe.
The first Teatro Colón
On April 27, 1857, opened the first Teatro Colón, with a performance of La traviata. It was located or in front of Plaza de Mayo, in the southwest corner of the block between Rivadavia, Reconquista, Bartolomé Mitre and May 25. The plans were made to us by Carlos E. Pellegrini-father of future President of the Republic. Its capacity was calculated to 2,500 people.
In the construction of the early settlers used for the first time in the country, suspenders and ironwork. The multitude of chandeliers and chandelier of 450 lights were gas-fired. The stage, the largest to be built to date, was endowed with all the necessary elements for great scenic placed.
In his three decades of existence, the former Columbus Theatre, but closed its doors in 1888 to become the headquarters of the Banco de la Nacion Argentina, introduced the most famous singers of the era - Tamberlick Enrico, Giuseppe Cima, Sofia Vera Lorini, Giuseppina Medori, Federico Nicolao, Julian Gayarre, Adelina Patti and Francesco Tam agno-and developed a repertoire which is still attracting attention for its breadth and eclecticism that included German premieres of operas that were sung and no Italian, so as in some European countries.
The present Teatro Colón
When former Columbus Theatre performed its dazzling opera seasons, the Theatre Academy of Music in New York, active in its headquarters on 14th Street since 1849, and the former Metropolitan Opera Broadway, born in 1883, performing seasons lyrics limited virtually to the German repertoire, which was economically viable operas with vocal stars from Italy, Spain and France. By the end of last century, Italian and French operas were performed in both New York theater used to be sung in German artists of that origin. This provided a strong distinction between the Buenos Aires opera activities, which were held simultaneously in several rooms, and New York, I see that ace ntuaba the diversity of the repertoire addressed by n ur opera houses and the enviable quality of its performers.
The present Teatro Colón was born, therefore, the imperative requirement of a society that from the early nineteenth century has been devoted to opera as a musical manifestation of choice. The taste of that supreme invention of the late Renaissance, reached in Buenos Aires at the end of the nineteenth century boom dazzling to the point that competed in seven theaters offer quality. But the unexpected closure of the Teatro Colon Plaza de las Victorias had been in the spirit of society as an open wound that could not mitigate the fascinating activity that took place in other theaters, and that made the distant Buenos Aires one of the Notable opera centers around the world. The prosperity of the capital fueled the hopes of the people and the government itself, which turned a deaf ear to that cry. Otherwise, the project of building a theater to replace the primitive Columbus had been the subject of debate before the building of the latter was intended to banking. At that time the land occupied by the Western Railway Station Park and who is ultimately brought the new theater) were in the sights of the city council of the city. The same year the closing of the Teatro de la Place des Victoires, the October 20, 1888, was enacted into law bearing the number 2381, which called for a public tender to build the new theater.
The purpose of the authorities was to inaugurate the new Columbus before October 12, 1892, but as we know, this was not a naive wishful thinking, because, although work began in 1889, the date it was dictated by law and the inauguration of the new theater passed twenty years. Budgetary constraints, technical, political, purely bureaucratic and other various kinds were tying in this long period. Finally, the work began as the project architect Francisco Tamburini, whose untimely death came on the scene his closest collaborator and colleague Victor Meano, who had to make some changes to the original draft, which had already been studied by the author. Referring to the architecture of the new theater, Meano defined it thus: "This kind of style do not call too much mannerism, like to have the characters of the Italian acimiento Ren, alternating with the distribution and strength of detail of the German architecture and grace variety and bravery characteristic of French architecture. " In this direction the work was carried out until 1904, another unfortunate event budding theater mourned: Meano the architect's death, under whose direction the work progressed steadily towards the latter stages. The tragedy seemed to lurk this project, because Ferrari had also died Angel, enthusiastic Italian businessman, dealer of new settlers.
The eminent Belgian architect Jules Dormal then assumed responsibility for the successful completion of the work, which introduced some structural changes and definitely left his stamp in the French style of decoration. The impressive resume building rules and architectural trends of the time. There could be more complete summary of the eclecticism that was addressed the architecture of the theater, which are assembled so natural, so consistent, so harmonious various styles, including Greek Revival features of the facade. The exterior is impressive but not great. "Regardless of colossal masses look too severe, that only suit buildings for religious-political cult he writes mean-looking presentations simple and varied, lively and majestic at once. Our building will be privileged to indicate at first glance their own destiny. "
The building is located on the property bounded by Liberty Street, Arturo Toscanini, Cerrito and Tucumán, between the Plaza Lavalle and Avenida 9 de Julio. The land on which is built covers 8.202 square meters, of which 5006 correspond to the building and 3196 to units under the street level of Arturo Toscanini. The total area of the building is 37,884 meters square.
The facades are divided into three architectural orders. The first, which corresponds to the base, is 8.50 meters tall, the second measures 9.20 meters, and the third is 5.50 meters. Above the terraces is a stylish gable roof. It is a harmonious and excellent perspective can be seen at a distance from the Avenida 9 de Julio.
In construction, exquisitely decorated, combines elements of Italian Renaissance. Bases sober, well-defined, similar to the Greek order penthouse consisting of ground floor and first floor between the columns with Ionic capitals monumental, and Corinthian and multiform variations floors unify the second and third apertures and openings are covered with arches, architraves and trim the richest design. No one can speak of a definite style, but an eclectic style that was characteristic of the construction of the early twentieth century.
The Golden Room
From both ends of the Hall of Busts is accessed Dor ado Hall, which occupies the entire front overlooking Liberty Street and the two angles of the surrounding streets, with a total area of 442 square meters. Huge columns carved with a profusion of gold accents, tall mirrors that resemble the great halls of the palaces of Versailles or Schoenbrunn, give this unit a special attraction. French furniture with fancy marquetry work, sofas and chairs upholstered in pale pink and a series of large spiders further enhance the grandeur of this room. In this room are made lectures, concerts and exhibitions of sets, costumes and photography.
The room, horseshoe-shaped, meets the highest standards of Italian and French classical theater. The acoustic excellence has been recognized internationally.
The plant is bordered to the third floor balconies. The shoe has a smaller diameter 29.25 meters, 32.65 meters in diameter and 28 meters. It has a total capacity of 2478 sites, but can also witness the shows about 500 people standing.
Source of the official Teatro Colón: http://www.teatrocolon.org.ar
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